This kind of system is built on synchronized or harmonized workflow at each step of the production process. Time synchronization is a crucial aspect of this process since the synchronization of workflow cannot be achieved if there are more fluctuations in the standard times (SAM) of specific operations occur.
If one of the operations is running at a SAM value of 1.7 minutes Then all the other operations on the production line will be the same or a similar SAM value. The balancing of the standard time of each operator can result in bizarre combinations of complete or partial operations that may reduce the effectiveness of each operator. The structure of a synchro-system to allow manufacturing a complete sleeves shirt is depicted in Figure 3.
PBS Synchro straight-line system:
This PBS synchro system isn’t adaptable and is susceptible to breakdowns frequently of equipment and increased absenteeism. Standby equipment and operators need to be available to prevent delays each time. In addition, this system requires an adequate amount of similar-style clothes to ensure uninterrupted operation.
Production system for units (UPS) for the production of clothing:
As a mechanical system, this is in use for a long time, but the first major leap forward was created in 1983 when computers first began to be used to control, plan and manage how workflows within the system.
The unit production system, also known as UPS is a reaction to competition pressure due to the increasing demands of consumers and global competition. The UPS system is based on the use of an overhead transportation system that is automated that can transport the units from one location to the next, instead of requiring the human hand handling of materials within this bundle structure.
While this production system was in operation for several years, significant improvements were achieved when computers were used to assist with manufacturing planning control of production and regulate the flow of work on this production line.
The most important characteristics of the UPS production system include:
- It’s mainly about one piece of clothing and not bundles.
- The garment’s components are transferred from the workstation by an established sequence.
- The workstations are designed that the parts are placed as close as is possible to the left hand of the operator to decrease the amount of effort required to grasp and move the component that is to be sewn.
The operating principles of the unit production (UPS) are as follows: (UPS) is as they are:
The entire components of a garment are loaded into a container on a working station specifically made to accommodate this use. The carrier is split into sections, with each featuring a quick-release clasp that keeps the parts from falling out while moving across the device. When a collection of garments is loaded onto carriers, they are fed through an electronic or mechanical device that registers that number on the carriers, and then routes it to the initial destination. Some of the most sophisticated systems identify the carriers with all destinations they need to go through to completion.
The carriers that are loaded are transferred to the main powered line which is constantly circulated between machine rows. The principal or the headline is linked to each station via junctions which are open automatically when the work of a carrier is directed to the station in question. The carrier is located to the left of the operator. It then is waiting for its turn, along with the other carriers at this station (Figure 4).
Once the operator is finished with the work on one carrier the button on the back of the machine is activated, and the machine then triggers the mechanism, which then takes the machine back to the mainline. When one carrier is removed from the station, a new one is automatically fed in to replace it. After the vehicle leaves the station, it’s stored in the data collection system and then it is directed to the next station.
Production systems for units require substantial expenditures, that isn’t always justified using conventional pay-back calculations. In addition to the tangible advantages, UPS also have many intangible benefits, like an easier and more well-controlled flow of work and the capability via the control system to simulate the production environment several times ahead of time. These intangibles are hard to quantify, yet they can make a huge part in the performance of the system.
In all likelihood Unit production systems offer significant advantages over all manual and mechanical systems utilized for the production of clothes in mass quantities. They provide an apparel factory that can respond rapidly to any change that might happen. In the highly competitive fashion industry, it is crucial.
The advantages of the Production of garments with a higher level of efficiency:
- The Bundle Handling System has been eliminated.
- The time required for the pickup and drop process is cut to an absolute minimum.
- Output is recorded automatically, eliminating the need for the operator to record the work.
- Computerized systems within this UPS automatically distribute the workload of two workstations.
- As many as 40 designs can be made in one go on a single machine.
Advantages of UPS in the production of garments:
- UPS requires a large investment where the payback time is lengthy.
- It is essential to plan efficiently each time.
- Sometimes the systematic and controlled process of work through electronic control over the entire production process is difficult to gauge.
Comparison of PBS and UPS: PBS with UPS: UPS:
Within clothing manufacturing businesses, a variety of sewing machines are used. The proprietor of the garment manufacturing facility purchases these machines according to the quantity of production, the variety of products as well as the expense to purchase and maintain the machines. The PBS is the most commonly used sewing system currently. The pieces of cut are manually moved along the line of feeding by assistants. The operators move the bundles by themselves to finish the required task and then shift until the following operator. As technology advances, mechanical systems for transporting materials are being introduced. An overhead transport system, also known as UPS can transport cut pieces of material that are hung on hangers (one hanger per piece) through an automation system. It helps reduce manual handling and transportation and also has other advantages in comparison to the PBS.
Modular Production System for Apparel Manufacturing:
The modular method of production is largely derived from the Japanese auto manufacturing process and is believed to be a way to accommodate the varying requirements in the apparel industry. This modular approach, even though it was first introduced in the 1980s, it is one of the most recent production methods in the world of clothing. It is also known as a cellular or team system. Market segmentation has increased and the necessity for shorter production cycles and more operational flexibility, along with the fierce competition within standard products from countries with low wages and the like, have forced manufacturers of clothing to test this new production technique. Modules employ a cross-training method that requires multi-skilled workers and a limited number of machines to create an end-to-end garment. The main principle is a worker/operator involvement and teamwork, which demands significant changes to the Human Resource (HR) department. The employees are accountable for the quality of work. The most important elements that make up the system are the groups of workers who have multiple talents within a single module and group piece rate or the hourly rate, U-shaped modules as well as single piece handoffs. This type of system is known as Group Technology or cellular manufacturing. A lesser amount of material handling significantly reduces inventory levels and production time, which helps reduce the cost of inventory as well as the handling of materials.
A modular manufacturing system:
- Unconstrained to collaborate with operators.
- At one workstation, operators or workers must be able to carry out the tasks on different sewing machines in a proficient way.
- In this production system that is modular In-line inspection areas are built inside the production line to ensure that the person inspecting them will be able of returning the defective garment panel to the operator responsible throughout the system.
- The efficiency is high in this manufacturing system because the worker handles the garment just once per operation instead of having to handle it for each operation.
- Only a handful of garments will be processed in this particular production line because the time to process is shorter in this method.
- The modular system of production may contain up to eight working stations set up within the transport system.
The advantages of a modular clothing Production system
- High Flexibility
- Speedy throughput times
- Low wastages
- Reduction in absenteeism
- Reducing repetitive motion injuries
- The manufacturing process is high
- Empowered employees
- Product quality improved
The disadvantages of a modular manufacturing system
- A significant cost of capital in the purchase of equipment
- The high cost of initial training
- Costs associated with continuing training
Evaluation of Garments Production Systems:
The assessment of production methods for garments can be accomplished by considering four fundamental factors like
processing time The Processing time is the sum of the amount of time that is spent on the steps involved in assembling the garment.
Transport time This is the entire time spent in the transportation of finished or semi-finished garments from one workplace or department to the next.
waiting time for incomplete garments The idle period for a working bundle while it awaits the next task to be completed.
Time for inspection: This is the time that is used for the inspection in-process of semi-finished garments and the final examination of the finished garments before packing.
The selection of the best clothing production process will be contingent on the policies and products of the business and the capabilities of employees. The primary objective of all production methods is to cut down the production process time, which results in lower costs for inventory. The choice of the right garment production method for a particular industry is determined by the fashion of the products and the policies of the company as well as the capacity of labour. The cost of inventory determines the decision to choose an appropriate production system in the majority of conditions in the industry of apparel. If the material, labour cost, space and interest are very high a synchronized subassembly method that allows for the smallest amount of inventory in the process is the best choice.